Rabi

Brief Overview of Climate Change in Bangladesh

Bangladesh is widely recognized as one of the most vulnerable countries to climate change in the world. Geographically, the country is characterized by low-laying delta formed by the three major rivers i.e. the Brahmaputra, Ganges and Meghna. More than 90% of the land is low-lying flood plain. In addition, the country lies between the Bay of Bengal in the south and an active Himalayan tectonic belt in the north. Thus the country is inherently at high degree of risk to a range of natural disaster. The whole central part of the country is highly prone to flood and erosion, the southern part is prone to salinity intrusion and cyclone, the north western part is prone to drought and north-eastern part is prone to flash flood. In addition, the whole country has been experiencing some emerging hazards for last few decades which include densely fog, heat wave, cold wave, seasonal variation of temperature, precipitation and so on. The major elements of climate change including temperature and precipitation has been gradually changing over the period. Observed data indicates that the temperature is generally increasing in the monsoon season (June, July and August). Average maximum and minimum temperatures in monsoon period show an increasing trend annually at the rate of 0.05OC and 0.03OC respectively (MOEF, 2005). On the other hand, average maximum temperature in winter season (December, January and February) shows an increasing trend annually at the rate of 0.041°C while minimum temperature shows an increasing trend annually at the rate of 0.026°C which reflects winter is also becoming warmer (Atiq et al., 2007). Various models also show an increasing trend of temperature and the seasonal variation. There is also significant variation in temporal distribution of rainfall. Observed data shows that both number of days without rainfall and annual total rainfall is increasing, which means more rain is occurring in short duration. It also reflects erratic behavior of rainfall.

Overall impacts of climate change on Bangladesh would be significant. It is estimated that climate change could affect more that 70 million people of Bangladesh due to its geographic location, low elevation, high population density, and poor infrastructure, high levels of poverty and high dependency on natural resources. It was found that the population living in the coastal area is more vulnerable than the population in other areas (Alam and Laurel, 2005). Coastal resources upon which the most people depend are likely to be affected severally due to climate variability and change. It is predicted that for 45 cm rise of sea level may inundate 10-15% of the land by the year 2050 resulting over 35 million climate refuges from the coastal districts. Ultimately adverse impacts have the potential to undermine poverty reduction efforts and could compromise to achieve the national target on development. The OECD and World Bank also estimated that 40% of the Overseas Development Assistance (ODA) to Bangladesh may be climate sensitive or at risk.

Overview of Community Climate Change Project (CCCP)

Climate change is the biggest global threat to humanity in the 21st century. And Bangladesh is one of the most vulnerable countries in the world facing the potential impacts of climate change.  With an understanding of the nature and magnitude of the adverse impacts of climate change and the efforts required to enhance resilience, the Government of Bangladesh (GoB) adopted Bangladesh Climate Change Strategy and Action Plan (BCCSAP) in 2009. A multi-donor trust fund, known as “Bangladesh Climate Change Resilience Fund (BCCRF)”, was established to implement the strategy and action plan. As of today, BCCRF has attracted around US$190 million (initially it was US$125 million) from the bilateral development partners (United Kingdom, European Union, Sweden, USA, Australia, Switzerland and Denmark). Ninety percent of the available fund will be allocated to public sector projects, while 10 percent will be channeled through NGOs for community level climate actions through a different project titled ‘Community Climate Change Project (CCCP)’.  The Governing Council of BCCRF entrusted Palli Karma-Sahayak Foundation (PKSF) to implement the community-level climate change adaptation activities through CCCP. On behalf of the contributing Development Partners and in consultation with the Government of Bangladesh (GoB), the World Bank (WB) ensures the fiduciary management of the project. CCCP has its own Operational Manual (OM), Environmental Management Framework (EMF), Social Management Framework (SMF), Procurement Guideline,

Grievance Redress Mechanism, Complain Handling Mechanism and Monitoring and Evaluation Manual. Throughout the project, every NGO has to work as per the guidelines of these manuals. PKSF has established a Project Management Unit (PMU) in its own premises to manage the activities of CCCP and the project implementation supervision in PIP level.

Brief of the Sub-project

As a Project Implementing Partner of PKSF, Organization for social Advancement and Cultural Activities (OSACA) has been working to mitigate the threats posed by drought in Lalpur Upazila of Natore district. The Upazila is one of the drought prone areas of Bangladesh. The area where Lalpur is located is deficient in atmospheric, surface and ground water. Almost all the Tube-wells of Lalpur Upazila cannot draw any water in the summer. On top of that, getting safe potable water is very difficult. This leads the people to fetch water from nearby water bodies. The problem is deteriorating due to climate change. Drinking unsafe water, women and children are being affected by water borne diseases and their morbidity rate is increasing fast. The poor defecate in the open place since they can hardly manage to construct a sanitary latrine. Severe heat wave damages crops and dries up arable lands. As a part of the integrated Approach for Adaptation to Drought, OSACA has been providing the beneficiaries with required training and technical support for goat rearing. Ponds also have been excavated and re excavated in the project area. OSACA has also installed deep hand Tube-wells for safe drinking water and deep Tube-wells for irrigational purpose. Except this, sanitary latrines have been installed. The crops which can tolerate drought have been introduced to the beneficiaries.

Goal and Objectives

GOAL:  Enhancing the capacity of the community to build sustainable resilience against climate change through community based planning.

OBJECTIVES:

  1. Enhancing the capacity of the poor and the ultra poor families to adapt with the impact of climate change through income generating activities and draught resilient crops.
  2. Ensuring WASH facilities of the poor and ultra poor families through alternative practices considering the impact of climate change.

PROJECT PERIOD: February 2014 to December’2016.

Working Area

OSACA has been implementing this sub project in Lalpur, Bilmaria, Ishwardi and Arjunpur-Boromhati Unions in Lalpur Upazila of Natore District. It is situated on the bank of Padma River. It is the most drought affected area in Bangladesh. The area was selected on the basis of vulnerability and poverty concentration. The names of working areas are presented in the table below:

District Upazila Union
Natore Lalpur
  1. Lalpur

 

  1. Bilmaria

 

  1. Ishwardi

 

  1.  Arjunpur-Boromhati

 

Target Beneficiaries

OSACA has been implementing this project in 25 villages of 04 unions. A total of 1262 HHs are selected to implement the sub-project. Some 41 groups have been formed with an average of 31 members in each group. The group is known as “Climate Change Adaptation Group (CCAG)”. The group members are mainly poor and marginal women who are the head of their households. The members are also included from small & marginal farmer community. The sub-project also covers 5048 people of the working area as indirect beneficiaries who are mainly family members of the selected households, community leaders and local government representatives.

Budget

PROJECT BUDGET: The total budget of the sub project is BDT 2,54,70,567/- where CCCP contribution is BDT 2,39,00,000/-, OSACA contribution is BDT 5,04,509/- and community contribution is BDT 10,66,058/-

Major Activities

  • Training and Technical Support for Goat Rearing
  • Promotion of Drought Adaptive Agriculture
  • Installation of Sanitary Latrines
  • Installation of Deep Hand Tube-wells
  • Re-excavation of Pond

Other Related Important Activities

  • Inception meeting
  • Participatory Rural Appraisal / Focus group discussion
  • Beneficiary selection and profiling

 Vulnerability of the Sub-project Area

Context of Climate Change

Temperature

Average temperature ranges from 25°C to 35°C in the hottest season and 9°C to 15°C in the coolest season. However, the region sometimes experiences extremes – in summer, some of the hottest days experience a temperature of about 39.1°C or even more and in winter temperature falls to about 8.4°C in some places. Average Highest temperature 31.9°C and average minimum temperature 20.1°C Lalpur’s temperature over the past 18 years is given below (Temperature Record Ishwardi weather station):

Maximum Temperature

Year Jan Feb March April May June July August Sept. Oct Nov Dec Ava. Tem
1995 23.9 27 33.1 39.1 37 33.4 31.7 31.9 32 32.2 28.8 26 31.3
1996 24.5 28 34 36.7 36 32.8 32.7 31.9 33 31.2 29.7 26.4 31.4
1997 24.3 26.8 32.3 31.6 35.3 34.00 32 32.6 31.6 31.4 29.4 24.2 30.4
1998 21.2 27.4 4 29 32.5 33.7 35 32.6 32.5 32.2 32.7 29.9 27 28.4
1999 25.2 29.9 34.8 37.1 34.1 33.4 31.8 31.8 31.4 31.6 29.8 27 31.4
2000 24.3 25 31.9 34.2 33.4 33.2 32.5 33.2 31.4 31.8 30.3 26.2 30.6
2001 24 28.5 33.3 35.8 32.9 32 32.5 33.2 32.6 32 29.7 25.3 30.9
2002 25.2 28.5 32.7 33.1 32.7 32.9 32.6 31.8 32.5 31.9 29.3 25.3 30.7
2003 21.7 27.5 30.3 34.8 35.4 32.7 33.1 33.5 32.5 31.1 29.8 25.7 30.6
2004 22.7 28.4 34.2 34.4 36.5 33.1 32.2 32.9 31.5 31.1 29.4 26.4 31.0
2005 23.6 28.5 32.9 35.5 35 35.6 32.4 33.2 33.5 30.2 28.8 26.5 31.3
2006 24.7 31.3 33.6 34.8 34.6 34 33.1 33.3 33 32.8 29.2 26.8 31.7
2007 24.9 26.8 31.5 35.4 36.2 33.9 32.5 33.2 32.8 32.2 29.8 26 31.2
2008 23.8 25.8 32.7 35.8 35.6 32.9 32.1 32.7 33.2 31.8 30 25.4 30.9
2009 24.8 29.4 33.6 36.8 34.7 36.2 33.4 33 33.5 32.1 29.8 25.5 31.9
2010 22.2 28.7 35.8 37.6 35.2 34.4 33.9 34.1 33.2 32.5 30.2 25.2 31.9
2011 22.7 28 33 34.3 34.1 34.1 33.3 31.7 32.6 32.9 29.3 24.2 30.85
2012 22.7 28 33 34.3 34.1 34.1 33.3 31.7 32.6 32.9 29.3 24.2 30.85

Minimum Temperature

Year Jan Feb March April May June July August Sept. Oct Nov Dec Ave. Tem
1995 8.8 12.8 17 23.8 25.5 26.5 25.9 26.1 25.8 23.4 18 11.9 20.4
1996 10.4 13 19.8 22.7 25.5 25.2 26.3 25.7 25.8 22.6 16.8 11.8 20.4
1997 9.6 12.4 19.3 20.3 24.4 25.1 25.8 26.4 25.4 22.1 18.5 13.1 20.2
1998 10.2 14.5 16.2 22.2 24.3 27.4 26.4 27 26.2 25.3 20.3 13.7 21.1
1999 10.9 14.6 18.6 25.8 24.8 26.2 25.9 26.1 25.6 24.2 18.5 13.6 21.2
2000 10.8 13.4 17.9 23.4 24.4 25.8 26.4 26.4 25.4 23.8 18.6 12.6 20.7
2001 9.6 13.4 17.9 23.3 23.4 25.9 26.3 26.6 25.8 24.2 19.4 12.2 20.6
2002 12.1 13.5 18.8 23 24.3 25.6 26.3 26.1 25.7 22.4 18.1 13.3 20.7
2003 8.3 14.7 18.1 23.7 24.8 25.6 26.4 26.5 25.9 23.9 16.8 12.9 20.6
2004 10.5 13.2 20.2 23.5 25.3 25.5 26 26.3 25.4 22.5 16.5 14 20.7
2005 11.4 15.4 20.1 23.5 24.5 26.1 26.1 26.5 26.5 23.4 17.4 12.9 21.15
2006 10.4 16.2 18.5 23.1 24.5 26.1 26.6 26.1 25.6 23.2 17.7 12.3 20.8
2007 9.3 14.6 16.9 23.8 24.8 25.9 25.9 26.6 26 23.3 18.1 11.4 20.5
2008 11.2 11.8 20.4 23.1 24.4 25.8 26.1 26.4 25.8 22.5 16.8 14.9 20.7
2009 12.2 13 18.1 24.1 24.6 26.3 26.6 26.4 26 22.5 17.9 11.6 20.7
2010 9.2 13.3 20.6 25.6 25.5 26.1 26.7 26.6 25.8 23.6 18.5 12 21.1
2011 8.4 12.6 18.7 22.1 24.1 26.2 26.3 26.1 26.1 23.3 16.8 12.3 20.2
2012 8.4 12.6 18.7 22.1 24.1 26.2 26.3 26.1 23.3 23.3 16.8 12.3 20.01

Maximum & Minimum Temperature Data

 

N.B: It is observed by analyzing the temperature related data that Bangladesh’s temperature is gradually increasing. The temperature, on the other hand, goes down more than usual in winter.

Precipitation

Observed data shows that there is a change in the number of days without rainfall and annual total rainfall in Lalpur. The geography of Lalpur is characterized by a prolonged continuous period of dry weather along with abnormal insufficient rainfall. The total monsoon rainfall seems to be declining in Lalpur every year. Overall, however, the total monsoon rainfall seems to be declining at a rate of about 138.017 mm per year. As shown in figure, on the basis of the monthly rainfall data for Ishwardi weather station during 2015.

 

Monthly Rainfall Data:

District Jan Fab mar Apr May June July Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Total Rainfall Ave
Dhaka 7.7 28.9 65.8 156.3 339.4 340.4 373.1 316.5 300.4 172.3 34.4 12.8 2148 179
Mymen 10 20.5 35.8 128.6 356.9 394.3 436.3 318.1 335.3 190.9 17.5 8.7 2252.9 187.7
Tangail 9 33.5 33.1 151.1 258.6 311.2 345.1 253.1 298.1 139.7 29.6 12.1 1874.2 156.1
Chittag 5.6 24.4 54.7 147.4 298.6 607.3 727 530.6 259.3 184.8 67.5 11.9 2919.1 243.2
Rangam 5.1 24.3 62.1 147.9 319.7 504.8 572.6 435.2 259.6 152.2 55.7 9.5 2548.7 212.3
Comilla 7.5 28.8 66.2 153.9 329.6 329.8 415.5 316 226.6 141.6 41.6 8.6 2065.7 172.1
Cox’s 4.1 17 34.7 121.8 286.8 801.9 924.6 667.1 330.1 213.6 109.4 13 3524.1 293.6
Kutubdia 6.5 24 51.4 85.5 215.6 638.3 763.7 488.9 299.8 169.3 71.9 9.3 2824.2 235.
Sylhet 9.4 36.2 155.3 375.6 569.6 818.4 819.2 612.6 535.9 223.9 30.4 9.4 4195.9 349.6
Srimang 5 31.3 84.1 216.1 449.9 449.7 339.4 299.3 278.5 150 40.3 11.2 2354.8 196.2
Rajshahi 11.3 17.5 24.8 63.7 136.4 264.6 320.7 273.9 295.9 106.4 16.3 10.6 1542.1 128.5
Ishurdi 8 8.1 21.5 30.8 95 206.3 288.6 335.6 261.2 282.8 98.1 17.4 10.8 1656.2 138.0
Bogra 8.7 15.2 20.1 80.5 222 343.8 406.1 285.3 310.1 126.9 13.1 11.3 1843.1 153.5
Rangpur 9.3 11.8 24.5 104 294.4 417.4 464.8 376.1 383 132.1 10.5 7.9 2235.8 186.3
Khulna 13.3 44.4 52.7 87.1 200 335.6 329.8 232.5 254.7 129.8 32.1 16.6 1728.6 144.0
Jessore 14.8 26.1 44.6 75.4 169.9 298.7 304.1 291.8 236.9 107.9 29 15.8 1615 134.5
Barisal 8.9 27 57.1 132.3 232.2 408.4 407.3 371.3 259.4 158.6 52.4 12.6 2127.5 177.2
Patuakh 9 24.9 41.3 132.9 276.4 547.1 572.1 484.8 380.8 163.7 71.7 7.3 2712 226
Khepu 6.1 24.9 50.9 132.4 258.5 510 650.1 479.9 357.7 228.1 58.3 7.1 2764 230.3

Monthly Rainfall Data

Figure 3: Total monsoon rainfall in Natore district between 2015.

Source: Daily rainfall, time series, Ishwardi Station, Bangladesh Weather station (BW).

Note: June to September is monsoon period;

N.B: The chart prepared by the Department of weather used above makes it clear that Bangladesh’s three northern districts viz. Pabna, Natore and Rajshahi received less rainfall than other districts in 2015.

Climate Change Induced Hazards

A crucial climate induced change has altered the cycles of seasons in Lalpur. The change has made only three seasons viz. summer, winter and monsoon prominent. Other three seasons namely autumn, late autumn and spring seem to merge with them due to climate change. Summer has become prolonged and very hot. Rain starts very late; and the season manifests in few bouts of excessively heavy rains and dry spells in-between. Winter has become delayed, short and severe. It also includes several spells of cold-wave. This ever changing nature of climate elements have significant impacts on climate change induced hazards. Frequency, timing and nature of the hazards have also changed. Earlier flood was not a very common phenomenon. Flood, as a negative effect of climate change, has become recurring events with low inundation in a given year. However, major hazards are described below:

 

 

 

Drought:

 

Drought means lack of rainfall over a long period. Drought is one of the main problems in Lalpur. Crops are highly affected by it. The average layer of underground water in this area is at a depth of 32 feet which has resulted in the unavailability/insufficiency of surface water. Another aspect of this dire crisis of water is evident in existing ponds, tube-wells and canals etc.

 

Cold Wave:

Bangladesh experiences a moderate winter like other tropical countries. However in recent years, numerous cold waves during winter have also been recorded. Cold wave acts as a disaster when it affects the whole environment, including human beings, their shelters, or the resources essential for their livelihoods adversely. For last few years, Lalpur experienced some severe cold waves that caused serious distress to the locals.

 

The impact of cold waves is as notorious as other regular natural calamities of Bangladesh as far as the damage, distress and disruption as well as death toll was concerned.

 

Flood:

Floods are normal phenomenon in Bangladesh. It usually occurs during the monsoon season. The flood situation in Lalpur district generally worsens when incessant rains and onrush of water from the upstream come.

Physical Context

Lalpur is located at 24.1833.N88.9750.E.It is located in such an area which is the hottest and the coldest in Bangladesh. The land form is fully characterized by the Padma and its tributaries.

Socioeconomic Context

Lalpur is one of the poorest Upazilas in the country. A poverty map published by the World Bank in collaboration with World Food Program shows that Lalpur’s upper and lower poverty lines are respectively 48.60 and 31.50 percent. According to the Poverty Map, 30.7 percent people are poor in the country. Kurigram is top in the district level poverty rate where 63.7 percent people are poor while the poverty rate in Kushtia district is only 3.6.              

Existing Practices of Adaptation and Risk Reduction Government Initiatives

As Lalpur is one of the most vulnerable Upazillas of Bangladesh; there are a lot of government interventions in the project area such as: Integrated Agricultural Productivity Project (IAPP), Akti Bari Akti Khamar, Kabikha, Test and Emergency Relief (TER), Local Govt. Sustainable Project (LGSP), Ultra poor program, Food for Work, LGD Program, and Rural Maintenance Program (RMP).

Lalpur is one of the most vulnerable upazillas of Bangladesh in terms of climate change variability and extreme events including drought, cold wave, and river erosion.

 

 Outcome of the Sub-project Activities

Activity 1: Training and Technical Support for Goat Rearing

Goat rearing is a very traditional practice throughout the country. Mainly the poor and marginal people rear goats to support their livelihood during lean period. But they face challenges to reduce diseases and mortality of the livelihood resources. The major problem of traditional process of goat rearing is that people keep goats on soil at night. It allows goat to inhale methane from their urine which causes bronchitis, cold and other respiratory diseases. To overcome these problems, the sub-project has introduced slatted houses for goat rearing which is a proven technology of reducing these diseases.  In addition, rural poor people rarely keep information about vaccination and treatment of goat. The sub-project supports to make slatted house for goat, training on improved management of goat rearing, vaccine and other veterinary services.  It is observed from the field that the goat related diseases have been reduced and goats have become healthier and more productive.

In addition, rural poor people rarely keep information about vaccination and treatment of goat. The sub-project provides required supports for making slatted houses for goat, training the poor on improved management of goat rearing, vaccines and other veterinary services. OSACA has trained 1102 beneficiaries on improved management of goat rearing to reduce effects of climate change on goat health and 1102 slatted houses has been installed. This activity is the first of its kind in Lalpur. The people of this locality also responded positively to the goat rearing activity. They have by this time understood that slatted housing will be the proper way of rearing goats for them.

The impact of this activity is highly visible in Lalpur. On an average, 4 to 5 goats are kept in each slatted house.  At present, near about five thousand goats are being reared in selected slatted houses. It plays a very important role in Lalpur’s economic activities. A special market for selling the leaves of Jackfruit has evolved in response to the growing demand of these leaves as the favorite fodder for the goats. Chinir mour Bottola, Lalpur Bazar and Bilmaria Bazar are very famous for buying and selling the leaves of Jack-fruit in every morning/ afternoon. That is why, the slatted houses are playing very important role to alleviate poverty.

Activity 2: Promotion of Drought Adaptive Agriculture

Agriculture is the most vulnerable sector in the event of climate change. Increased temperature, low precipitation and scarcity of water are major problems of crop cultivation in the selected area. Poor and marginal farmers mainly cultivate rice in Aman season which is often affected by drought. The sub-project introduces modified cropping pattern with improved varieties of crops. Wheat, Paddy & Mug Pulse’s seeds are distributed among 200 farmers. Presently the selected farmers cultivate BINA-7 in Aman season which is a short duration variety of rice know as drought escaped variety.

Then in Rabi season, they cultivate BARI Wheat-24 or BARI mustard 15 which requires irrigation twice whereas traditional varieties require 4-6 times. And in Pre-kharif season, they cultivate BARI Mug 8 which is also very short duration and require little water. Many of them have already started cultivating short duration rice variety or short duration Mustard variety like BARI-15. Drought adaptive wheat cultivation has made many beneficiaries self reliant. OSACA is working to publicize this modified cropping pattern for Lalpur Upazila.

The problems resulting from the climate change induced drought are given below:

Sl. Marked Problems Current activities against Drought Steps to be taken
01 Unavailability of water is forcing the farmers to cultivate one crop viz. Sugarcane leaving other crops. As a consequence, the agricultural laborers have remained unemployed. A new dimension has been added to agriculture. Farmers have started cultivating spices and pulses because Sugarcane is not profitable as it used to be in the past. Appropriate selection of crops in a cyclic manner is the best option. Three crops per year will ensure profitability. This will increase the requirement of agricultural laborers and also introduce new technologies. On top of that, the farmers will earn more than before.
02 Drought has hampered the availability of water required for agriculture. As a result, the time of planting seeds fluctuates. Unavailability of surface water necessitates the use of ground water. Thus, the cost of production rises. The layer of shallow pumps is going deeper every year in unison with the degradation of Lalpur’s underground water. The scarcity of water forces the farmers to cultivate only one crop through the whole season. Sugarcane is the only cash crop every year. In spite of high costs of production, people rely on underground water.

 

The use of agro technologies can address these problems. Genetically modified crops, which can tolerate drought and take comparatively short periods of time to be harvested, are being cultivated.
03 Climate change has made the cycle of seasons irregular. As a result, drought has been frequent in Lalpur. It rains when it is not needed. On the other hand, when It is needed, It does not rain. Thus, this kind of irregular rainfall is hampering agriculture. Many people in Lalpur cultivate Sugarcane to avoid this risk. Many people also depend on the whim of Nature at the time of cultivation. At least, three crops need to be cultivated in a single season cyclically.
04 Climate change induced drought has made the sources and reservoirs of water like ponds, canals and rivers go dry which in return is telling upon the natural source of fishes and other aquatic resources. As a result, fishermen are being unemployed. The crops sown on the lands of dried rivers, canals and ponds sometimes may be at risk due to the insufficient flow of water. The rest of the lands of the dried rivers remain fallow. Rivers, canals and ponds should be re-excavated by the community in a bid to reserve water available during monsoon. Dams aimed at preserving water can be raised on the dead rivers in order to rear fish.
05 Drought hardens the upper layer of the earth. As a result, difficulty arises in cultivation. It becomes difficult to make the lands flat. On the other hand, during rainy season, soil becomes slippery which hampers communication. Farmers cannot but grow crops in the hardened lands. During rainy season, people cannot but use the muddy and slippery roads for the purpose of communication and transportation.

 

Excessive use of underground water is allowing the entry of iron into the texture of soil which is making the soil round shaped and hard. In such a condition, lime and ash can be applied to make the texture of soil soft. In addition to this, bio fertilizers can be used to retain the softness of soil.
06 Drought hampers the production of Jackfruit, mango and litchi. Farmers apply water or insecticide to sustain the required level of production. No advice is sought from the agro-scientists. Fruit bearing trees need to be taken care of in advance (at least 2 months before the arrival of flowers). Sufficient water should be poured around the roots during drought. Advice should be sought from the agro

Scientists.

07 Excessive level of drought causes various diseases like cholera, diarrhea, B-virus (Jaundice) and dysentery. Drought induced diseases are treated by local quacks. Complex diseases require the patients to go to the Upazila or District level hospitals. Safe water needs to be drunk during drought. Safe water should also be used in doing household chores. Homestead must be kept neat and clean always. The patients must go to the specialist physician in case of complex diseases.

 


Economic Activities:

The economy of Lalpur is dominatingly agro-based. Ninety five percent households depend on agriculture. North Bengal Sugar Mill is the epicenter of creating a specific cropping pattern with a special focus on Sugarcane in this region. But, the level of productivity is on the decrease with the gradual unavailability of water. The wage of the laborers employed in the agro based works in Lalpur ranges from BDT 200 to 250.The demand of recruiting laborers in agriculture increases seasonally. During the lean period, these laborers go to adjacent areas in search of employment. On top of that, women rear goats and poultry. Goats belonging to the black Bengal species are found in Lalpur. These goats are famous nationally.

Agricultural Activities:

For not being flood affected areas, Arjunpur-Boromhati, Ishwardi, Lalpura and Bilmaria unions are suitable for growing crops all the year round. Insufficient water necessitates the use of underground water in the field of agriculture. The opportunity of using the water reserved during rainy season is not available in Lalpur. In spite of the presence of some small and large wetlands and rivers, underground water is being used due to the unavailability of water in ths drought escaped variety.

Then in Rabi season, they cultivate BARI Wheat-24 or BARI mustard 15 which requires irrigation twice whereas traditional varieties require 4-6 times. And in Pre-kharif season, they cultivate BARI Mug 8 which is also very short duration and require little water. Many of them have already started cultivating short duration rice variety or short duration Mustard variety like BARI-15. Drought adaptive wheat cultivation has made many beneficiaries self reliant. OSACA is working to publicize this modified cropping pattern for Lalpur Upazila.

The problems resulting from the climate change induced drought are given below:

Sl. Marked Problems Current activities against Drought Steps to be taken
01 Unavailability of water is forcing the farmers to cultivate one crop viz. Sugarcane leaving other crops. As a consequence, the agricultural laborers have remained unemployed. A new dimension has been added to agriculture. Farmers have started cultivating spices and pulses because Sugarcane is not profitable as it used to be in the past. Appropriate selection of crops in a cyclic manner is the best option. Three crops per year will ensure profitability. This will increase the requirement of agricultural laborers and also introduce new technologies. On top of that, the farmers will earn more than before.
02 Drought has hampered the availability of water required for agriculture. As a result, the time of planting seeds fluctuates. Unavailability of surface water necessitates the use of ground water. Thus, the cost of production rises. The layer of shallow pumps is going deeper every year in unison with the degradation of Lalpur’s underground water. The scarcity of water forces the farmers to cultivate only one crop through the whole season. Sugarcane is the only cash crop every year. In spite of high costs of production, people rely on underground water.

 

The use of agro technologies can address these problems. Genetically modified crops, which can tolerate drought and take comparatively short periods of time to be harvested, are being cultivated.
03 Climate change has made the cycle of seasons irregular. As a result, drought has been frequent in Lalpur. It rains when it is not needed. On the other hand, when It is needed, It does not rain. Thus, this kind of irregular rainfall is hampering agriculture. Many people in Lalpur cultivate Sugarcane to avoid this risk. Many people also depend on the whim of Nature at the time of cultivation. At least, three crops need to be cultivated in a single season cyclically.
04 Climate change induced drought has made the sources and reservoirs of water like ponds, canals and rivers go dry which in return is telling upon the natural source of fishes and other aquatic resources. As a result, fishermen are being unemployed. The crops sown on the lands of dried rivers, canals and ponds sometimes may be at risk due to the insufficient flow of water. The rest of the lands of the dried rivers remain fallow. Rivers, canals and ponds should be re-excavated by the community in a bid to reserve water available during monsoon. Dams aimed at preserving water can be raised on the dead rivers in order to rear fish.
05 Drought hardens the upper layer of the earth. As a result, difficulty arises in cultivation. It becomes difficult to make the lands flat. On the other hand, during rainy season, soil becomes slippery which hampers communication. Farmers cannot but grow crops in the hardened lands. During rainy season, people cannot but use the muddy and slippery roads for the purpose of communication and transportation.

 

Excessive use of underground water is allowing the entry of iron into the texture of soil which is making the soil round shaped and hard. In such a condition, lime and ash can be applied to make the texture of soil soft. In addition to this, bio fertilizers can be used to retain the softness of soil.
06 Drought hampers the production of Jackfruit, mango and litchi. Farmers apply water or insecticide to sustain the required level of production. No advice is sought from the agro-scientists. Fruit bearing trees need to be taken care of in advance (at least 2 months before the arrival of flowers). Sufficient water should be poured around the roots during drought. Advice should be sought from the agro

Scientists.

07 Excessive level of drought causes various diseases like cholera, diarrhea, B-virus (Jaundice) and dysentery. Drought induced diseases are treated by local quacks. Complex diseases require the patients to go to the Upazila or District level hospitals. Safe water needs to be drunk during drought. Safe water should also be used in doing household chores. Homestead must be kept neat and clean always. The patients must go to the specialist physician in case of complex diseases.

 


Economic Activities:

The economy of Lalpur is dominatingly agro-based. Ninety five percent households depend on agriculture. North Bengal Sugar Mill is the epicenter of creating a specific cropping pattern with a special focus on Sugarcane in this region. But, the level of productivity is on the decrease with the gradual unavailability of water. The wage of the laborers employed in the agro based works in Lalpur ranges from BDT 200 to 250.The demand of recruiting laborers in agriculture increases seasonally. During the lean period, these laborers go to adjacent areas in search of employment. On top of that, women rear goats and poultry. Goats belonging to the black Bengal species are found in Lalpur. These goats are famous nationally.

Agricultural Activities:

For not being flood affected areas, Arjunpur-Boromhati, Ishwardi, Lalpura and Bilmaria unions are suitable for growing crops all the year round. Insufficient water necessitates the use of underground water in the field of agriculture. The opportunity of using the water reserved during rainy season is not available in Lalpur. In spite of the presence of some small and large wetlands and rivers, underground water is being used due to the unavailability of water in those sources. The layer of underground water is in a convenient condition in Lalpur now, whereas the shallow pumps are not able to draw water in Ishwardi Upazila of Pabna district, adjacent to Lalpur. This layer of water should be retained. The lack of appropriate cropping patterns facilitates the use of excessive underground water for irrigation. This water is also being lost due to evaporation or other natural reactions. This loss of water can be lessened adopting an appropriate cropping pattern.

Table 2: Local Cropping Patterns

Serial No Seasons of crops
Rabi/Boro Kharip-1 Kharip-2
01 Sugarcane Sugarcane Sugarcane
02 Sugarcane+ Lentil Sugarcane Sugarcane
03 Sugarcane+ Mustard oil Sugarcane Sugarcane
04 Sugarcane+ Coriander Sugarcane Sugarcane
05 Boro(paddy) fallow Ropa Aman(paddy)
06 wheat jute Ropa Aman(paddy)
07 wheat Til(an oil seed) Ropa Aman(paddy)
08 Lentil Jute Ropa Aman(paddy)
09 Vegetables Vegetables Ropa Aman(paddy)
Source: Department of Agricultural Extension, Lalpur, Natore.

 

Table 3: CCCP Prescribed Cropping Patterns

Sl. No Seasons of crops
Rabi/Boro Kharip-1 Kharip-2
01 wheat Mug(Pulse) Ropa Aman(paddy)

Table 4: Differences between Local and CCCP Prescribed Cropping Patterns

 

Sl. No cropping patterns prevalent currently CCCP prescribed cropping patterns
01 It is quite impossible to harvest three crops per year. A crop is grown on an early basis. As a result, the cost of containing insecticides increases. It is also inimical to the environment. It is possible to harvest three crops per year successfully. There is no need for using pesticides in order to curb insects and other related problems.
02 The cropping pattern prevalent in Lalpur is not environment friendly. The use of archaic varieties of crops with a long life span pollutes environment. Apart from this, the use of excessive pesticides and fertilizers is also injurious to our environment. The CCCP prescribed cropping pattern gives importance to the use of genetically modified crops which have a high level of immunity from insects and diseases. In addition to this, the CCCP prescribed pattern also ensures the short life span, the use of round Urea and the application of a proper dose of fertilizer .The Irrigation of the CCCP empowered crops is also environment friendly.
03 The cropping pattern followed at present can’t mitigate the effects of drought. Sugarcane is the only cash crop in Lalpur. The crops prescribed by the CCCP are drought tolerant. Drought tolerant wheat is being popularized by the CCCP. Side by side, Bari Mug-6 and Bari Mug-8 have also been made popular in Lalpur. These two varieties require scarce water as well as short period for being harvested. The features of tolerance are also found in Bridhan-56 and Bina-07.The life span of these two varieties ranges from 105 to 110 days, that is to say, they need 20 to 26 days less than their normal counterparts. These two varieties of paddy are also able to withstand the effects of drought for a period of 10 to 15 days.

 

04 The act of irrigation using the underground water is liable for the wastage of water. The Boro-Jute-Amon as well as the wheat-jute-aman patterns is dependent on irrigation. No rule is maintained to retain the efficiency. Drought tolerant varieties of wheat, pulse and paddy have reduced the wastage of water. Schedules are being strictly followed to irrigate the fields efficiently. Irrigation is not necessary for growing pulse.
05 The yield never differs from the previous year. On top of that, there remains a deficit in the level of production. The level of income also remains the same if compared to the previous year. The level of production went down due to the absence of proper management (Fertilizer, irrigation and seed). Specially, the production of wheat has seen an increase by 2 or 3 mounds compared to the previous year. There is an impact over the income which has resulted from the lower cost of production and the growth of yields.
06 The cropping pattern prevalent in Lalpur does not improve the fertility of soil. The CCCP prescribed cropping pattern with its balanced features is able to retain fertility.

Rabi Season has been the most affected amongst all the seasons due to climate change. The crops grown in this season easily fall prey to the Drought induced complexities. Drought comes in unison with the arrival of flowers and it hampers the biological growth of crops. The presence of drought makes the layer of underground water go down per year. As a result, irrigating the fields frequently becomes a necessity. The farmers of Lalpur are still struggling to choose appropriate varieties of crops during the drought affected season. The OSACA led CCCP advises the farmers to cultivate Pradip (wheat) and Mug (pulse).The farmers are also motivated by the CCCP officials to irrigate their fields maintaining a proper time table. It is possible to avoid drought and maximize the level of production by choosing appropriate variety of crops, by irrigating the fields timely and by adding a balanced mixture of nutrients to the soil.

 

 

One hundred and Sixty farmers were supplied the logistics for cultivating BARI Mug-8. The fields require irrigation once at the time of sowing seeds if the level of saturated water remains low. After that, no irrigation is required. When the plants reach the age of 65 or 70 days, the time of harvesting comes. BARI Mug-8 can be harvested twice in a year though it is prescribed to be harvested once. These crops create an opportunity for the females to be engaged in income generating activities and add extra nutrients to the composition of soil. The short duration of harvesting crops allows the production of another crop in the same year, whereas jute requires at least 110 to 115 days. Such delay can lengthen the period between the cultivation of two crops.

 

The cultivation of wheat and crops on time saves at least one month for growing paddy. The abundance of rain during the kharip -2 seasons facilitates the cultivation of paddy. Paddy is the third crop of the CCCP prescribed trio. Sufficient rainfall has not made irrigation mandatory this year. The life span of BRI DHAN-56 and BINA-07 ranged from 105 to 109 days. It gave enough time to cultivate the crops of the Rabi season. By using a proper cropping pattern as well as a drought tolerant variety of crops, thirty or forty days can easily be saved which in turn helps the farmers mitigate the effects of climate change.

 

Sowing and Harvesting Periods of Crops:

In agriculture, sowing seeds and harvesting crops within a specific time are very important. The variations of time while sowing or harvesting crops may result in increasing the rate of attacks by the insects and also create a wide gulf between the yields of the present year and the previous year. So, time plays a great role in growing three crops in a year in a single piece of land. For example: If wheat, pulse and jute are grown respectively in a single piece of land in a year, the season of Amon paddy will lose 15 or 20 days and the possibility of facing drought will be very high. In this kind of cases, wheat, Mosur (pulse) and Mug (pulse) can be grown respectively and it will set aside enough time for Aman paddy to grow without facing the challenges of drought. Crops can be easily protected in the original lands where they are generally grown. In such a condition, insects and diseases become rare.

Table 5: The CCCP Prescribed Cropping Pattern:

Sl No. Crops Wheat Mug (Pulse) Ropa Aman Paddy
1 Season Rabi Kharip-1 Kharip-2
Preparing Bed Planting in the field
2 Time of Sowing 01.12.14 10.04.15 13.5.15 16.6.15
3 Time of Harvesting 29.03.15 23.06.15 29.10.15
4 Duration (Days) 119 75 105

 

Table 6: Current Cropping Pattern:

Sl No. Crops Wheat Mug (Pulse) Ropa Aman Paddy
Kharip-2
1 Season Rabi Kharip-1 Preparing Bed Planting in the field
2 Time of Sowing 30.11.14 04.03.15 5.07.15 2.08.15
3 Time of Harvesting 01.04.15 28.07.15 10.12.15
4 Duration (Days) 119 114 128

 

The cropping pattern given above describes that though jute and Mug (pulse) are sown simultaneously, Amon paddy can be easily grown and harvested in the fields where Mug (pulse) is being grown because the difference between the life span of jute and Mug (pulse) is only 39 days.  The maintenance of a proper cropping pattern makes the lands fertile and reduces the cost of production. The CCCP prescribed cropping pattern can play a vital role in mitigating the negative effects of climate change.

 

Curbing the Wastage of Underground Water:

The use of drought tolerant varieties of crops as well as the introduction of the crops with a short life span of life helps the farmer reduce the rate of irrigation. The efficiency of irrigation depends on its cyclical nature. The lands that were irrigated four or five times in the previous year have been irrigated three times this year. As a result, the cost of irrigation has subsided. Except this, the wastage of water due to the gap in the system has also been addressed and tapes are being used while irrigating the lands.

 

Growth of Farmers’ Income:

The farmers used to sow 25 to 30 kgs of wheat in a bigha of land previously. But, those farmers are given only 20 kgs of wheat under the CCCP now. This has not reduced the rate of production. The production of wheat has increased instead. The farmers used only Urea, TSP and MOP as fertilizers in the past. But, the CCCP management has prescribed six fertilizers after analyzing the texture of Lalpur’s soil. The rate of irrigation has come down from 4/5 to 2/3 now. The cultivation of mug (pulse) did not require irrigation. It has been known through discussion with the farmers that proper management has increased their margin of profit by BDT 3000/4000.

Reservation of Seeds:

Generally, the farmers keep their seeds from out of their yields. This kind of reservation helps the farmers a lot, but the use of the same seed brings variations in production. Every farmer has kept 30 to 40 kgs of seeds for the next year. The farmers were shown how to reserve the seeds of Mug on the spot.

The sustainability of the activities:

It has been proved by following the CCCP prescribed cropping pattern that proper cropping pattern facilitates the growth of profit through growing three crops in a year in the same piece of land. Cultivation in this way is not spoilt by the effects of drought. The CCCP prescribed cropping pattern ensures the employment of women. It also makes the lands fertile. OSACA believes that the farmers across this area will be applying the CCCP prescribed cropping pattern in order to mitigate the effects of drought.

Activity 3: Installation of Sanitary Latrines

As per the guidelines of PKSF, 250 CCCP designed environment friendly sanitary latrines have been installed in Lalpur. CCCP termed this design of latrine as “second generation latrine”. The unique feature of this latrine is that it has water supply systems (a water reservoir is constructed attached with the structure connected with pipe and tap), handle inside the latrine for children, pregnant women, olds and physically challenged persons, ceramic pan, separate pit connected with PVC pipe and tin-roof.

Three families use a single latrine. By maintaining the hygienic standard through using sanitary latrines, the beneficiaries have reduced their medical cost dramatically. Diseases like cholera, typhoid and dysentery are about to go. The beneficiaries are happy to get such a life changing help.

Activity 4: Installation of Deep Hand Tube-Wells

Ensuring safe drinking water is the biggest challenge in the changed environment. OSACA has installed 193Tube-wells successfully in its catchment area. Each Tube-well is being used by 5 to 7 families. A person selected by the community is appointed for each Tube-well to take care of it. These Tube-wells can supply water not only in the monsoon but also in the dry season. Though the installation of Tube-wells is a traditional solution of scarcity of safe drinking water, the process of OSACA’s intervention is innovative. A committee was formed for each Tube-well.

The committee members were trained to let them know how to maintain and manage Tube-wells. This committee will look after the Tube-well in the long run. Tube-well based bank account was opened to save money for the maintenance of Tube-wells. A try-party MoU was signed among groups, Tube-well owners and OSACA to make the intervention sustainable. It is interesting to note that they provided land and financial cash contribution of Tk. 10% for each tube-well. This contribution builds sense of ownership of the community. The poor people have access to safe drinking water all the year and water to maintain hygiene.

Activity 5: Re-excavation of Pond

Water is one of the most sensitive sectors in the event of climate change. Climate change affects quality, quantity and timing of water. It causes problems of too much water in monsoon and too little water in dry season. In drought affected areas of Bangladesh, the excavation of ponds helps adapt with the scarcity of water by increasing surface water availability for bathing, washing and irrigation. For sustainability of pond, water user groups have been formed whose duty is to supervise the maintenance of those ponds regularly.

The group members are equipped with knowledge on the adverse effects of climate change. In addition, a bank account is opened with a view to collecting savings for pond management and maintenance. A trio-party MoU has been signed between OSACA, pond management group and the pond owner. Pricing of water is also planned to increase savings for future maintenance. At present, 10 (Ten) ponds are re-excavated in our project area. The people of this area are much more benefited by this activity. Bathing, washing clothes, supplying water to the field and other important works are very easy to do now. It also helps to maximize use of surface water.

Other Related Important Activities

Inception Meeting:

OSACA organized an inception meeting on the 24th June, 2014 which was attended by the Upazila chairman, vice chairman and Upazila Nirbahi Officer. The chairmen of the union councils also took part in the meeting. Thirty six participants were present in the meeting. Among the participants, the number of woman was five. All the participants expressed their satisfaction regarding the project.

The Upazila Nirbahi Officer focused on the importance of digging the canals of Lalpur. He also told that digging the canals would create opportunities for employment and irrigation. The Upazila Chairman suggested that the project should include the Union Chairmen in order to be more successful. The livestock officer of Lalpur expressed his hope that goat farming would reduce poverty.

Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA)

OSACA aims to incorporate the knowledge and opinions of the beneficiaries in the planning and management of CCCP. The target people of the IAAD have come up with their ways of building resilience. They actively took part in role reversals and feedback sessions.

Most of the participants seemed to be enthusiastic about enhancing resilience to drought. The community’s involvement in the project begins at the very start. A participatory community based process is followed in the project. It is the role of the community to assess and plan the activities.

Focus Group Discussion (FGD) & Group Meetings

The beneficiaries of the IAAD in Lalpur have participated in a focus group discussion organized by OSACA. The participants were asked questions about the climate change related problems and the impact of climate change in their life. They identified the problems and suggested solutions.

People’s perceptions, opinions and attitudes were judged through this discussion. Questions were asked in an interactive group setting where every participant was free to talk with other group members. Even two group meetings are arranged in a month.

Beneficiary Selection and Profiling

Mobilizing the community, several groups have been formed from out of the poor of the working area. The most affected people of Lalpur Upzilla. The beneficiaries have been selected on the basis of some criteria like ownership of less than 33 decimal land, women headed families and chronic food insecurity, unavailability of support from other agencies, income in the range of BDT 2000 for a family of five and the presence of disable members. A household survey has been conducted by the IAAD staff of Lalpur for profiling and record keeping. The needs of the beneficiaries have been assessed through community meeting and focus group.

 Need Assessment and future adaptation option

 Sustainability of the project:

Sustainability of each of the program has been ensured by involving the community in monitoring and evaluation process. Selected groups of the beneficiaries look after the implementation of various programs to ensure sustainability. Signing MoU, formation of Committees, savings for future maintenance of community level structural interventions; long attachment of organization with the community etc. will act as cementing agents of sustainability. In addition to this, selected beneficiaries will be gradually linked to MFIs for continuous financing.

Possible Future adaptation Activities:

  • Linking the sub-project participants with MFIs for continuous financial support
  • Building awareness and capacity of the community on climate change issues
  • Developing climate resilient agriculture system
  • Increasing storage of surface water
  • Promoting climate resilient IGA like vermin compost and handicrafts etc.
  • Forestation
  • Strengthening local level institutions to combat with climate change
  • Extension of proven technology